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甲鱼粗放式养殖的夏季管理技术

1、在雨季来临前要检修好鳖池的排灌系统,为供、排水和高温天气的换水做好准备。

1. Before the rainy season comes, the drainage and irrigation system of turtle pond should be repaired to prepare for water supply, drainage and exchange in high temperature weather.

2、产卵场的沙子不要让雨淋得过湿,或曝晒得太硬,保持湿度在80%左右为佳。转移鳖卵时也需注意温度和湿度的管理。清晨取卵后,每晚4~5时对产卵场进行清扫和整平,好让亲鳖产卵和方便取卵。

2. Don't let the sand in the spawning ground get too wet in the rain or too hard in the sun. It's better to keep the humidity around 80%. The management of temperature and humidity should also be paid attention to when transferring soft-shelled turtle eggs. After the eggs are collected in the morning, the spawning grounds are cleaned and leveled at 4-5 p.m. every night so that the soft-shelled turtles can lay eggs and take eggs conveniently.

3、夏季初、中期是鳖最活跃、摄食最多、生长最快的时期,投饵量应逐渐增加到其体重的3%~3。5%,饵料尽量用富含营养的鲜活材料,以均衡营养,保证生长发育的需要。当夏末水温高达30℃以上时,鳖难耐高温,活动减少,食欲减退,应特别注意防暑降温,如增高水位、引入凉水或搭盖荫棚等。喂食亦应趁凉,用量以不剩余为度。

3. Early and mid-summer are the most active, feeding and growing periods of soft-shelled turtles. The amount of bait should gradually increase to 3%-3% of their body weight. 5%, as far as possible, fresh and nutritious materials should be used to balance nutrition and ensure the growth and development needs. At the end of summer, when the water temperature is above 30 C, turtles are difficult to endure high temperature, their activities decrease and their appetite decreases. Special attention should be paid to heat prevention and cooling, such as raising water level, introducing cold water or building shade shelters. Feeding should also take advantage of the cold, dosage is not surplus for degree.

4、夏末有部分稚鳖孵出,静水饲养时要防止水温过高,以免影响生长,饵料最好喂水蚤。

4. Some juvenile soft-shelled turtles hatch at the end of summer. When rearing in still water, it is necessary to prevent excessive water temperature from affecting their growth. The best food for them is to feed fleas.

5、掌握好投饲量:室外池养殖受天气影响较大,夏季经常有雷雨和狂风,因而会干扰鳖的摄食。若投饲过多,不论水上投饲还是水下投饲,都会因残余饲料而污染水质。在雷雨天气,投饲量应较平常少些,投饲时应尽量避开雷雨;在晴好天气,由于甲鱼在烈日下较少吃食,所以上午投饲应少些约占日投饲量的40%,下午4~5时投饲应多些,约占60%。

5. Master the feeding quantity: Outdoor pond culture is greatly affected by the weather, thunderstorms and gales often occur in summer, which will interfere with the feeding of soft shelled turtles. If overfeeding, water or underwater feeding will pollute the water quality because of residual feed. In thunderstorm weather, the feeding amount should be less than usual, and the feeding should be avoided as far as possible; in fine weather, because turtles eat less in the hot sun, the feeding should be less in the morning about 40% of the daily feeding amount, and more in the afternoon 4-5, about 60%.

6、管理好水面漂浮植物:在夏季,为降低阳光对水的直射和降低水面温度,池内通常放一些漂浮植物,以吸收水中的营养盐类及一些有毒物质,如氨气、氮、硫化氢、二氧化碳等,以净化水质,并可为甲鱼提供隐蔽场所。漂浮植物必须离开池四周一些距离(离饲料台一边应远些)用竹框加以固定,以减少鳖的踩踏对植物的毁坏而造成水质污染。漂浮植物的覆盖面占池面积的1/3~1/2。过少达不到降温效果;过多影响水中浮游植物的光合作用,减少水面与空气的接触。当漂浮植物繁殖后较拥挤时,可适当捞除多余的植株,以保持框内植株簇拥而不挤。

6. Manage floating plants: In summer, in order to reduce the direct sunlight to water and the surface temperature, floating plants are usually placed in the pond to absorb nutrients and toxic substances, such as ammonia, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, etc. in order to purify water quality and provide shelter for turtles. Floating plants must be fixed in bamboo frames some distance from the pool (far from the side of the feed table) to reduce the damage caused by the trampling of turtles on plants and water pollution. Floating plants cover 1/3-1/2 of the pond area. Too little can not achieve cooling effect; too much affects the photosynthesis of phytoplankton in water, reducing the contact between water and air. When floating plants are crowded after reproduction, redundant plants can be removed properly to keep the plants in the frame crowded and not crowded.

7、调节好水体环境:在露天养殖池调节水质通常采用换水和泼洒生石灰。由于池内放养了漂浮植物,具有净水能力,一般不需要经常换水。为了增加水中溶氧和防止水质老化,通常排出底层污水,补充新鲜水,换水量为20%~30%,以免引起水环境的较大变动。当池水恶化变黑发臭时,应全部换水冲洗,重新培育水质。粪便和残饵的分解使水质酸化,通过泼洒石灰水保持池水呈弱碱性。定期泼洒石灰水或含氯消毒剂,抑制致病菌的繁殖,有利于浮游植物的生长。

7. Regulate the water environment: In open-air aquaculture ponds, water quality is usually regulated by changing water and spraying quicklime. Because floating plants are kept in the pond and have the ability to purify water, it is not necessary to change water frequently. In order to increase dissolved oxygen in water and prevent water quality from ageing, the bottom sewage is usually discharged and fresh water is supplemented. The water exchange rate is 20%-30%, so as not to cause great changes in the water environment. When the pool water deteriorates and becomes black and smelly, all water should be changed and flushed to re-cultivate the water quality. The decomposition of feces and baits acidifies the water quality and keeps the pool water weak alkaline by spraying lime water. Regular spraying of lime water or chlorine-containing disinfectants inhibits the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria and is beneficial to the growth of phytoplankton.

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